Monday, March 4, 2024
    Water Scarcity & its Future Consequences - By Kritika Verma

    Water Scarcity & its Future Consequences – By Kritika Verma

    Water Scarcity & Future Consequences Of Over Usage Of Water.

    WATER is key for life, central to societal development. 71% of the earth is covered by water.
    Where 97.5 % of water is saline & this contains by the Ocean and only 2.5% of water is freshwater.
    Even, just 1% of our freshwater is easily accessible through rivers, lakes & swamps, etc. while 69% of freshwater resides in glaciers, 30% freshwater is under the ground as groundwater. That creates water scarcity.

    “Water, water everywhere, nor any drop to drink.” In these lines, Samuel Taylor Coleridge made a prescient point: while seawater is plentiful, people can survive only with fresh water. In the air as water vapor, In rivers, pond and lakes as a liquid, In icecaps and glaciers as ice, in the ground as soil moisture, in aquifers, even in you and in all the living being.
    The water we drink today changes it forms only…. from one to another form, it’s recycled through the earth’s atmosphere. The amount of water on earth remains the same ….. fairly constant over time.
    According to one recent study, by 2040 there will not be enough fresh water available to meet global demand for both drinking and energy production.

    Countries With The Most Renewable Fresh Water Resources are:-

    • Brazil – 12% of the world’s freshwater resources.
    • Russia – 9.2% of the world’s freshwater resources.
    • United States – 7% of the world’s freshwater resources.
    • India has the 10th position, And India has only 4% of the world’s freshwater resources.

    Freshwater is the most precious natural resource. life originated from the water. Water is essential for the survival of life on Earth. Without water, there would be no life on earth. And if the freshwater runs out completely after that life will be over. Only if the Scientist’s do some research with the help of science and technology & success in making water or something else to overcome this problem, only then the lives can be saved or we have to take some steps to save this precious Natural resource.

    Over-usage of water day by day, decrease the amount of fresh water on earth…
    Countries that consume the highest amount of water are:-

    • China – 1370 trillions liters of water per year
    • United state – 817 billions liters of water per year
    • Brazil – 359 billions liters of water per year
    • Russia – 268 billions liters of water per year
    • Mexico – 200 billion liters of water per year
    • CANADA – 38,300 million liters of water per year

    India has 16% of the global population and but have only 4% of freshwater resources. The population in India is expected to reach 1326.92 Million by the end of 2020, according to Trading Economics global macro models and analyst’s expectations. If population increases than the needs also increase as the needs increase towards the natural resources than the natural resources will be over one day. So, there is a need to control the population in India and the whole world as well.

    Topmost Countries in higher population:-

    1. China – 1,389,618,778
    2. India – 1,311,559,204
    3. United States – 331,883,986
    4. Indonesia – 264,935,824
    5. Pakistan – 210,797,836

    The situation is so serious that the World Economic Forum now ranks the water crises as one of the top biggest risks to humanity and human economics.

    Read More: PREAMBLE OF Indian Constitution: Law Notes

    What Factors Make Fresh Water Scarcity?


    Over-population will strain current water resources to their limits. As the population increases the need for fresh water as well. Overpopulation leads to Water Scarcity. Overpopulation not only leads to a shortage of water but also water pollution.

    Over Usage of Water:-

    Running Tap water while brushing, washing clothes, washing utensils and over agricultural irrigation. Over usage of water during bathing (usage of more bucket than require), bathtub & showers, Leaky faucets, Over flushing.
    Due to COVID-19, World washes their hands approximately every hour …. for at least 20 sec… This also can leads to a freshwater crisis problem in the future.

    Pollution of Water:-

    Improper Sewage Disposal. Throwing of kitchen wastage through the kitchen sink and the wastage goes straight down to the drain. Use of toxic chemical for farming which also toxify the soil and soil aquifers. Dumping of wastage by the factories into the river or near the river. Throwing of plastic into the ocean by the visitors. Flush down the pharmaceutical drugs into the sink. Nowadays, due to coronavirus people use face mask but dispose of it in the wrong way like in past days the used face mask founded near the Hong Kong beach.

    Sea Level Rising:-

    Rising sea levels can turn coastal aquifers into saltwater and cause problems for the local water infrastructure (this is known as saltwater intrusion) and this turns fresh water into the saline water.

    Due to Global warming Glaciers melts:-

    69% of freshwater contains by glaciers. Due to global warming, glaciers melt and if this happens, then the sea level would rise 230 feet globally and the freshwater also mixes to saline water (Ocean). Then fresh water will be reduced.

    Drought & Distance:-

    When drought strikes an area, there is usually no rain for a long period. This makes rivers to dry. Other water sources such as streams, ponds, etc. also dry up. People, therefore, do not have enough water for domestic and industrial use.
    In some arid regions areas, people stay far away from the river or water system . Traveling there takes a lot of time. It is also a burden to carry water from such distant places to homes. This discourages them from going to fetch water.

    The Consequences Of Over Usage Of FreshWater:-

    Lack of Access to freshwater:- when there is water scarcity, people are not able to get fresh water for drinking, cooking and other work too.

    Food scarcity and if accessible than prices too much high:-

    When there is no water for farming. This affects the number of crops grown and will determine whether there is enough food to feed. Water shortage has a direct impact on crops and livestock, which can lead to food shortages and eventually starvation .when there is nothing to eat. The people and animals die.


    If you do not have clean water, then the people more likely to get the disease. Contaminated water and poor sanitation are linked to the transmission of diseases such as cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, hepatitis, Jaundice, and typhoid, etc. Absent, inadequate, or inappropriately managed water and sanitation services expose individuals to preventable health risks.

    No Proper Sanitation:-

    Without access to clean water, there is no way to clean food, dishes, clothes, floor or people. The water becomes full of diseases and unsafe to drink.


    If the Depletion of groundwater occurs, this causes displacement of the movement of the tectonic plates. This can cause an earthquake.

    Farmer’s earning:-

    It affects the earning of the farmers as well. No proper food production on the farm affects their earning & lifestyle.

    Economic Slowdown:-

    It is difficult to have a thriving economy when freshwater is not easily accessible for industrial, farming, and individual use. Production of goods that require water in their formation like cars, food, and clothing could be limited by a lack of freshwater resources.

    Read More: Article 12 of Constitution: Definition of State

    Rising Sea Level:-

    According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, rising sea levels can turn coastal aquifers into saltwater and cause problems for the local water infrastructure (this is known as saltwater intrusion).

    Melting Glaciers:-

    Glaciers provide a major source of freshwater, shrinking glaciers will reduce the availability to accessible freshwater. Glaciers are like reservoirs that store water in the winter and release it in the summer. If all land ice melted, the sea level would rise 230 feet globally.

    Threatened ecosystem:-

    Water scarcity has serious effects on wildlife and flora. Especially notable is the rapid disappearance of wetlands, which reduces wildlife habitat and causes the loss of water filtration, storm protection, and flood control services typically proffered by wetlands. Even places like California, Florida, and Louisiana have witnessed high rates of wetlands disappearance.

    Biodiversity loss:-

    Water scarcity has different negative impacts on rivers, lakes, and other freshwater resources. It harms the environment in several ways including increased salinity, nutrient pollution, and the loss of floodplains and wetlands. Ecosystems and biodiversity (e.g. freshwater fish) are threatened by the scarcity of water resource

    How can we prevent or reducing water scarcity?

    The solution to reducing the water scarcity requires:–


    By educating the students and other people about the importance of water and how to save it. Then it’s easy to save freshwater. those who are not dealing with water scarcity, they can be in a position to help.

    Create Awareness:-

    By creating awareness of people towards the water scarcity problem, tell them how can we get rid of this problem, the importance of water, how can we save water, tell them about conservation of rainwater, etc. To cope with future water scarcity it’s important to aware people of the importance of water.

    Sustainable Water Management:-

    Water sustainability means maintaining clean and plentiful water that will be available for us and future generations to use and enjoy. It is a strategy for maintaining future water resources that include increasing water supply and managing the way we use fresh water to sustain economic growth for current and future generations.

    Development of good water filtering system:-

    It’s another way to have access to water that is safe to drink. This helps to overcome the problem of water scarcity. Companies worldwide are committed to developing sophisticated water filtration systems that produce purified water free from bacteria, microbes, and other contaminants, and bringing this clean drinking water to as many schools, hospitals, workplaces, and homes as possible. Which is helpful for us.

    Better sewage Treatment:-

    By the Sewage Treatment Plant (STPs), a sewage treatment plant churns out clean, non-polluting effluent from the polluted water which can be discharged directly to a stream ditch or other watercourse.

    Protect and Create the Wetland:-

    A wetland is a place where the land is covered by water, either salty water, freshwater or somewhere in between. Wetland conservation is aimed at protecting and preserving areas where water exists. Wetlands cover at least six percent of the Earth and have become a focal issue for conservation due to the ecosystem services they provide.

    Recycle wastewater and conservation of rainwater:-

    Rainwater harvesting and recycled wastewater also allow to reduce scarcity and ease pressures on groundwater and other natural water bodies.

    Improve irrigation and agricultural practices:-

    Industrial agriculture is one of the biggest drains on water resources. Simply switching from flood irrigation systems to sprinklers or drip irrigation systems could help the agricultural sector save a tremendous amount of water.

    This Article is written by Kritika Verma, B. Pharmacy student at Maharishi Dayanand University, Rohtak.

    Read More: SC invokes its inherent powers to extend the limitation period of appeals.

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